Professor Wes' list of European Monarchs

Includes:  France, Scotland, England, Spain, Portugal

Not included yet:  Austria, Denmark, Prussia, Russia, Germany, Poland

Last update:  13 July 2004

Sources:  Various

 

French Monarchs

         "French" monarchs covers post-Roman monarchs of what began as the Frankish people.  The regions over which pre-Charlemagne Frankish monarchs ruled varied greatly and is not taken into consideration.  Dynasty or family names are provided as delineations.

Merovingian

447-458 Merovich

458-482 Childeric I

482-511 Clovis I

511-558 Childebert I

558-562 Clothaire I

562-566 Caribert

566-584 Chilperic

584-628 Clothaire II

628-637 Dagobert I

637-655 Clovis II

655-668 Clothaire III

668-674 Childeric II

674-691 Thierry III

691-695 Clovis III

695-711 Childebert II

711-716 Dagobert III

716-721 Chilperic II

721-737 Thierry IV

737-743 no king

743-751 Childeric III

 

Carolingian

751-768 Pepin the Short

768-814 Charlemagne (also Holy Roman Emperor 800-814)

814-840 Louis I, the Pious

840-877 Charles I, the Bald

877-879 Louis II, the Stammerer

879-882 Louis III

882-884 Carloman

884-888 Charles II, the Fat

888-898 Odo, count of Paris

898-929 Charles III, the Simple

929-936 no king

936-954 Louis IV, the Foreigner

954-986 Lothaire

986-987 Louis V

 

Capetian

987-996 Hugh Capet

996-1031 Robert II, the Pious

1031-1060 Henry I

1060-1108 Philip I

1108-1137 Louis VI, the Fat

1137-1180 Louis VII

1180-1223 Philip II, Augustus

1223-1226 Louis VIII, the Lion

1226-1270 Louis IX, Saint-Louis

1270-1285 Philip III, the Bold

1285-1314 Philip IV, the Fair

1314-1316 Louis X

1316-1322 Philip V, the Tall

1322-1328 Charles IV, the Fair

 

Valois

1328-1350 Philip VI

1350-1364 John II, the Good

1364-1380 Charles V, the Wise

1380-1422 Charles VI, the Fool

1422-1461 Charles VII, the Victorious

1461-1483 Louis XI, the Spider

1483-1498 Charles VIII

1498-1515 Louis XII, Father of his People

1515-1547 François I

1547-1559 Henry II

1559-1560 François II

1560-1574 Charles IX

1574-1589 Henry III

 

Bourbon

1589-1610 Henry IV

1610-1643 Louis XIII

1643-1715 Louis XIV, the Sun King

1715-1774 Louis XV

1774-1793 Louis XVI

1793-1804 no king

1804-1814 see Emperors, below

1814-1824 Louis XVIII

1824-1830 Charles X

 

Orleans

1830-1848 Louis-Philippe

 

Emperors

1804-1815 Emperor Napoleon

1852-1870 Emperor Napoleon III

 

 

 

 

English/Scottish Monarchs

 

Scottish Monarchs

The kingdom of Scotland began when Kenneth mac Alpin united the Picts and the Dalriadan Scots and became their king.  The kingdoms of Strathclyde and Bernicia were separate until Strathclyde became part of Scotland in the reign of Duncan I.

 

House of mac Alpin

Kenneth I (843-858)

his brother, Donald I (858-862)

Kenneth I's son, Constantine I (862-877)

Kenneth I's son, Aed (877-878)

his nephew, Eochaid and first cousin Giric (878-889 – co-kings)

Constantine I's son, Donald II (889-900)

Aed I's son, Constantine II (900-943)

Donald II's son, Malcolm I (943-954)

Constantine II's son, Indulf (954-962)

Malcolm I's son, Dubh (962-966)

Indulf's son, Culen (966-971)

Malcolm I's son, Kenneth II (971-995)

Culen I's son, Constantine III (995-997)

Dubh I's son, Kenneth III (997-1005)

Kenneth II's son, Malcolm II (1005-1034)

Malcolm II's grandson, Duncan I (1034-1040)

Malcolm II's grandson, Macbeth (1040-1057)

Kenneth III's grandson, Lulach (1057-1058)

 

The House of Dunkeld

Duncan I's son, Malcolm III (1058-1093)

Duncan I's son, Donald III (1093-1094 and 1094-1097)

Malcolm III's son, Duncan II (1094)

Malcolm III's son, Edgar (1097-1107)

Malcolm III's son, Alexander I (1107-1124)

Malcolm III's son, David I (1124-1153)

David I's grandson, Malcolm IV (1153-1165)

David I's grandson, William I (1165-1214)

his son, Alexander II (1214-1249)

his son, Alexander III (1249-1286)

his granddaughter, Margaret (1286-1290)

puppet of King Edward I of England (1290-1292 – Wars of Scottish Independence)

David I¿s 3xgreat-grandson, John Balliol (1292-1296)

 

The House of Bruce

David I's 4x(great)grandson, Robert I (1306-1329)

his son, David II (1329-1371)

 

The House of Balliol

John Balliol's son Edward Balliol (1332-1338)

 

The House of Stewart (Stuart)

Robert I's grandson, Robert II (1371-1390)

his son, Robert III (1390-1406)

his son, James I (1406-1437)

his son, James II (1437-1460)

his son, James III (1460-1488)

his son, James IV (1488-1513)

his son, James V (1513-1542)

his daughter, Mary (1542-1567)

her son, James VI (1567-1625)

his son, Charles I (1625-1649)

his son, Charles II (1651-1685)

Charles I's son, James VII (1685-1688)

his daughter, Mary II (1689-1694) and her husband (and cousin) William II (William III of England) of the House of Orange (1689-1702), reigned together during Mary's life as "William and Mary"

William was succeeded by James VII's younger daughter Anne (1702-1707)

 

In 1707, with the Act of Union, the thrones of England and Scotland were formally united as the United Kingdom of Great Britain, keeping the numbering system of England.  See GB and UK monarchs below.

 

English Monarchs

After the departure of the Romans and prior to the formation of England, various British, Viking and Anglo-Saxon kingdoms existed in the southern two-thirds of Britain. Between 400 and 1000 the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms gradually conquered the others, amalgamating to form England.

Kings of Essex

(The Bretwalda – the overall kings (Bretwalda) were chosen from among the rulers of the various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England – hence the use of ¿of¿. There was not always a Bretwalda.)

Aelle of Sussex (477-514)

Cerdic of Wessex (519-534)

Ceawlin of Wessex (560-591)

Ethelbert of Kent (591-616)

Raedwald of East Anglia (616-627)

Edwin of Deira (627-632)

Oswald of Bernicia (633-641)

Oswiu of Northumbria (641-670)

Aethelbald of Mercia (c735-757)

Aethelbald's cousin, Offa of Mercia (757-796)

The Saxon Kings

(At this point the Kings of Wessex became dominant and started their dynasty.)

Ceawlin's 7x(great)-grandson, Egbert (829-839)

his son, Ethelwulf (839-855)

his son, Ethelbald (855-860)

Ethelwulf's son, Ethelbert (860-866)

Ethelwulf's son, Ethelred (866-871)

Ethelwulf's son, Aelfred (Alfred) the Great (871-899)

his son, Edward the Elder (899-924)

his son, Ethelweard (924)

his brother, Athelstan (924-939)

Edward's son, Edmund I (939-946)

Edward's son, Edred (946-955)

Edmund's son, Edwyn (955-959)

Edmund's son, Edgar (959-975)

his son, Edward the Martyr (975-978)

Edgar's son, Ethelred II (978-1013)

restored, Ethelred II (1014-1016)

his son, Edmund II (1016)

 

The Danelaw

(For a short period of time, both Danish and Saxon kings claimed the throne of England.)

Sweyn, also King of Denmark (1013-1014)

his son, Canute the Great (1016-1035)

his illegitimate son, Harold I Harefoot (1035-1040)

Canute's son, Hardacanute (1040-1042)

 

The Saxon Restoration

Ethelred II's son and Canute II's half-brother, Edward the Confessor (1042-1066)

his brother-in-law and Sweyn I's grand-nephew, Harold II (1066)

Edmund II's grandson, Edgar Ætheling, uncrowned (1066)

 

The Norman Kings of England

(After the Norman Conquest in 1066, numbering of kings starts over, at least for the Edwards. The reason for this is that the tradition of numbering reigning monarchs was brought to England by the Normans. The numbers given to pre-conquest kings were added by later historians.)

 

Edward the Confessor and Hardacanute's first cousin twice removed, William I (1066-1087)

his son, William II (1087-1100)

William I's son, Henry I (1100-1135)

William I's grandson, Stephen (1135-1154)

 

The Plantagenets (Angevins)

Henry I's daughter, Matilda, uncrowned (1141)

Matilda's son, Henry II (1154-1189)

his son, Richard I the Lionheart (1189-1199)

his youngest brother (Henry II's son), John (1199-1216)

his son, Henry III (1216-1272)

his son, Edward I (1272-1307)

his son, Edward II (1307-1327)

his son, Edward III (1327-1377)

his grandson, Richard II (1377-1399)

 

The House of Lancaster

Edward III's grandson, Henry IV (1399-1413)

his son, Henry V (1413-1422)

his son, Henry VI (1422-1461 and 1470-1471)

 

The House of York

Edward III's 2x(great)grandson, Edward IV (1461-1470 and 1471-1483)

his son, Edward V, uncrowned (1483)

Edward IV's brother, Richard III (1483-1485)

 

The House of Tudor

Edward III's 2x(great)grandson and Edward IV's son-in-law, Henry VII (1485-1509)

his son, Henry VIII (1509-1547)

his son, Edward VI (1547-1553)

Henry VII's great-granddaughter, Lady Jane Grey, uncrowned (9 days in 1553)

Henry VIII's daughter, Mary I (1553-1558)

Henry VIII's daughter, Elizabeth I (1558-1603)

 

The House of Stuart

Henry VII's 2x(great)grandson, James I, also King of Scotland, (1603-1625)

his son, Charles I (1625-1649)

 

The Commonwealth and Protectorate

(There was no king between Charles I's execution in 1649 and the restoration in 1660, but there were two Lords Protector during the Protectorate.)

Oliver Cromwell (1653-1658)

his son, Richard Cromwell (1658-1659)

 

The Stuart Restoration

Charles I's son, Charles II (1660-1685)

Charles I's son, James II (1685-1688)

James II's daughter, Mary II (1689-1694) and her husband William III of the House of Orange (1689-1702), reigned together during Mary's life as "William and Mary"

William III was succeeded by James II's younger daughter, Anne (1702-1707)

 

Monarchs of Great Britain

(In 1707, with the Act of Union, the thrones of England and Scotland were formally united as the throne of the Kingdom of Great Britain.)

 

The House of Stuart

The daughter of James (II of England; VII of Scotland), Anne (1707-1714)

 

The House of Hanover

James I's great-grandson, George I (1714-1727)

his son, George II (1727-1760)

his grandson, George III (1760-1801)

 

Monarchs of the United Kingdom of Great Britain & Ireland

(In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland merged to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.  George III's reigns spanned both the separate kingdoms and their merged entity.)

George III (1801-1820)

his son, George IV (1820-1830)

George III's third son, William IV (1830-1837)

George III's granddaughter, Victoria (1837-1901)

(in 1877, Victoria became also Empress of India)

 

The House of Windsor

(The House of Windsor was known as the House of Saxe-Coburg-Goetha until 1917, when anti-German sentiment swept England due to World War I.)

her son, Edward VII (1901-1910)

his son, George V (1910-1936)

 

Monarchs of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

George V (1910-1936)

his son, Edward VIII (1936)

George V's son, George VI (1936-1952)

his daughter, Elizabeth II (1952-)

 

Mnemonics

A useful rhyme for memorizing the names of the English and UK monarchs since the Norman Conquest in chronological order:

 

Willy Willy Harry Steve,

Henry Dick John Henry three;

Then three Edwards Richard two,

Henry Four, Five Six then who?

Edward four five, Dick the bad,

Two more Henries, Ned the lad;

Bloody Mary she came next,

Then we have our Good Queen Bess.

From Scotland we got James the Vain;

Charlie one, two, James again.

William and Mary, Anna Gloria,

Four Georges, William, and Victoria.

Edward, George, the same again,

Now Elizabeth - and the end.

 

 

Spanish Monarchs

 

Aragonese Monarchs

The Aragonese kingdom included the present-day autonomous community of Aragon. The Aragonese kings of the Barcelonan dynasty ruled as well Catalonia (which included Roussillon, nowadays the departement of Pyrenees-Orientales in France), the city of Montpellier, the kingdom of Valencia, the kingdom of Majorca, the kingdom of Sicily, and Sardinia.

The title of Count of Barcelona belonged to the Aragonese monarch after Alfonso II inherited it from his father Ramon Berenguer IV.

 

Counts of Barcelona

circa 870 - 897 Wilfred the Hairy (last Count appointed by a Frankish king)

897 - 911 Wilfred II or Wilfred Borell I

911 - 947 Sunyer I

947 - 992 Borell II

992 - 1018 Ramon Borell

1018 - 1035 Berenguer Ramon I

1035 - 1076 Ramon Berenguer I

1076 - 1082 Ramon Berenguer II

1082 - 1096 Berenguer Ramon II

1096 - 1131 Ramon Berenguer III

1131 - 1162 Ramon Berenguer IV (married Petronila of Aragon)

 

Counts of Aragon

circa 809 - 839 Aznar I Galindez

844 - 867 Galindo I Aznarez

867 - 893 Aznar II Galindez

893 - 922 Galindo II Aznarez

922 - ? Andragota

926 - 970 Garcia I Sanchez of Navarre

970 - 994 Sancho II Garces of Navarre

994 - 1000 Garcia II the Trembler of Navarre

 

Kings of Aragon

1000 - 1035 Sancho III the Great of Navarre

1035 - 1063 Ramiro I of Aragon

1063 - 1094 Sancho I Ramirez, a.k.a Sancho V of Navarre

1094 - 1101 Peter I of Aragon, conquered Huesca

1104 - 1134 Alfonso I, conquered Zaragoza

1134 - 1157 Ramiro II of Aragon

1137 - 1163 Peronella or Petronila (married Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona)

 

Kings of Aragon and Counts of Barcelona

1162 - 1196 Alfonso II, conquered Teruel

1196 - 1213 Peter II, died at the Battle of Muret

1213 - 1276 James I, conquered Valencia, Majorca and Ibiza. Wrote the Libre dels feyts

1276 - 1285 Peter III, conquered Sicily

1285 - 1291 Alfonso III, conquered Minorca

1291 - 1329 James II

1327 - 1336 Alfonso IV

1336 - 1387 Peter IV. Deposed the Kings of Majorca. Wrote the Chronicle

1387 - 1396 John I

1396 - 1410 Martin I, the Human, last direct descendant of Wilfred

1410 - 1412 Interegnum and Caspe Compromise

1412 - 1416 Ferdinand I of Aragon, a.k.a. F. of Antequera

1416 - 1458 Alfonso V, conquered Naples

1458 - 1479 John II, War of the remences

1479 - 1516 Ferdinand II of Aragon, a.k.a. Ferdinand V of Spain, invaded Navarre (married Isabella I of Castile)

 

Castilian Monarchs

Kings of Leon

Alfonso III of Leon 866-910 surnamed "the Great"

Garcia I of Leon 910-914

Ordono II of Galicia 910-924 and of Leon 914-924

Fruela II of Asturies 910-925 and of Leon 924-925

Alfonso IV of Leon 925-931 (abdicated 931, died 933)

Raimro II of Leon 931-951

Ordono III of Leon 950-956

Sancho I of Leon 956-958 and 960-966

Ordono IV of Leon 958-960

Ramiro III of Leon 967-984

Bermudo II of Leon 982-999

Alfonso V of Castile 999-1028

Bermudo III of Leon 1028-1037

Ferdinand I the Great 1035-1065

 

Counts of Castile

Fernando Aznarez - 927 - 930, only known for marrying the widow of Garcia I of Leon

Ferdinand Gonzalez - 923 - 970

Garcia I Fernandez - 970-995

Sancho I Garces - 995-1017

Garcia II Sanchez 1017-1029

Mayor - 1029-1032, wife of Sancho III of Navarre

 

Kings of Castile

Sancho III of Navarre - 1000-1035

Ferdinand I the Great, (died 1065), 1035-1065

Sancho II of Castile - 1065-1072

Garcia II of Galicia - 1065-1071

Alfonso VI of Castile, (1040-1109), 1072-1073

Urraca of Castile - 1109-1126

Alfonso VII of Castile, (1105-1157), the Emperor - 1126-1157

Sancho III of Castile - 1157-1158

Alfonso VIII of Castile, (1155-1214), 1158-1214

 

Kings of Castile and Leon

Alfonso IX of Castile, (1171-1230), and Leon 1188-1230

Henry I of Castile 1214-1217

Berenguela of Castile 1217

Ferdinand III of Castile, the Saint 1217-1252

Alfonso X of Castile, (1221-1284), the Wise 1252-1284

Sancho IV of Castile 1284-1295

Ferdinand IV of Castile, the Summoned 1295-1312

Alfonso XI of Castile, (1312-1350), 1312-1350

Peter I of Castile, the Cruel 1350-1369

Henry II of Castile, the Bastard 1369-1379

John I of Castile 1379-1390

Henry III of Castile, the Infirm 1390-1406

John II of Castile 1406-1454

Henry IV of Castile, the Impotent 1454-1474

Isabella I of Castile, a.k.a. Isabella I of Spain 1474-1504

Joanna of Castile, the Mad - 1504-1506

Philip I of Castile, the Handsome - 1506

 

Navarrese Monarchs

ca 824-1234 House of Jimenez

ca 824 - 851 Inigo Iniguez Arista. In Basque, Eneko Aritza.

851-880 Garcia Iniguez, son of Inigo Iniguez Arista

880-905 Fortun Garces the One-Eyed

905-926 Sancho I Garces, another son of Inigo Iniguez Arista

926-970 Garcia I Sanchez

970-994 Sancho II Garces

994-1000 Garcia II the Trembler

1000-1035 Sancho III the Great

1035-1054 Garcia III Sanchez

1054-1076 Sancho IV of Penalen

1076-1094 Sancho V Ramirez, as Sancho I of Aragon from 1063-1094

1094-1104 Peter I

1104-1134 Alfonso I

1134-1150 Garcia IV Ramirez

1150-1194 Sancho VI the Wise

1194-1234 Sancho VII the Strong

 

1234-1284 Monarchs from Champagne

1234-1253 Theobald I the Troubadour or the Posthumous

1253-1270 Theobald II of Navarre

1270-1274 Henry I the Fat

1274-1305 Joan I of Navarre, married to Philip IV of France

 

1284-1349 Capetian Dynasty

1284-1305 Philip I

1305-1316 Louis I

1316-1322 Philip II

1322-1328 Charles I

1328-1349 Joan II of Navarre, married to Philip of Evereux

 

1328-1441 Evreux

1328-1342 Philip of Evreux or Philip III of Navarre

1349-1387 Charles II the Bad

1387-1425 Charles III the Noble

1425-1441 Blanche of Navarre

 

1425-1479 Trastámara

1425-1479 John I

(1441-1446 Charles (IV) of Viana)

1479 Eleanor of Navarre

 

1479-1483 Counts of Foix

1479-1483 Francis Febo, (of Foix 1470-1483)

1483-1516 Catherine of Navarre

 

 

1483-1573 Albret (fr Maison d'Albret)

1484-1516 John of Albret, fr. Jean d'Albret

Jean d'Albret was defeated by Ferdinand II of Aragon in 1512, who married Germana of Foix and southern Navarre was annexed to Spain. The following monarchs reigned over the portion of Navarre north of the Pyrenees, called Lower Navarre. (The Spanish monarchs styled themselves monarchs of Navarre until 1833.)

 

1516-1555 Henry II of Navarre

1555-1572 Jeanne d'Albret, married Antoine of Bourbon, duke of Vendome (French: Antoine de Bourbon, duc de Vendôme)

 

1572-1589 Bourbon

1572-1589 Henry III of Navarre

Henry III of Navarre became Henry IV of France and thereafter the crown of Navarre passed to the kings of France. The kingdom of Navarre was incorporated into the French Republic in 1791.

 

Portuguese Monarchs

 

Prior to Independence

Henry of Burgundy, Count of Portugal, then a fiefdom of Castile (1093-1112)

Afonso I Henriques, Count of Portugal (1112-1139)

 

The Line from Burgundy (1139-1383)

Afonso I Henriques (1139-1185)

Sancho I (1185-1211)

Afonso II (1211-1223)

Sancho II (1223-1248)

Afonso III (1248-1279)

Dinis (1279-1325)

Afonso IV (1325-1357)

Pedro I (1357-1367)

Fernando (1367-1383)

Interregnum 1383-1385

 

House of Aviz 1385-1580

Joao I (1385-1433)

Duarte (1433-1438)

Afonso V (1438-1481)

Joao II (1481-1495)

Manuel I (1495-1521)

Joao III (1521-1557)

Sebastiao I (1557-1578)

Cardinal Henrique (1578-1580)

 

Habsburg

Philip I (1580-1598)

Philip II (1598-1621)

Philip III (1621-1640)

 

House of Braganza 1640-1910

Joao IV, Duke of Braganza (1640-1656)

Afonso VI (1656-1667)

Pedro II (1667-1706)

Joao V (1706-1750)

Jose I (1750-1777)

Pedro III (1777-1786)

Maria I Francisca (1777-1816)

Joao VI (Regent 1799-1816, 1816-1826)

Pedro IV (1826) (also Peter I of Brazil)

Maria II da Glória (1826-1828, 1834-1853)

Miguel I (1828-1834) (exiled)

Pedro V (1853-1861)

Luis I (1861-1889)

Carlos I (1889-1908)

Manuel II (1908-October 5, 1910, Republic declared)